VI. A. To elaborate briefly on these characteristics and dimensions that the author is talking about - NRMs are general tests intended to be used to classify students by percentile for measuring either or proficiency for admissions into or placement within a program.
B. Contrastingly, the CRM, such as; a locally produced achievement test, measures absolute performance that is compared only with the learning objective, hence a perfect score is theoretically obtainable by all students who have a mastery of the pre-specified material or conversely, all students may fail the test. C. In most of these books, the authors classify a measurement strategy as either norm-referenced (NRM) or criterion-referenced (CRM).
D. Another author points out how the type of interpretation that an NRM offers is the relative performance of the students compared with that of all the others resulting in, ideally, a bell curves distribution.
E. Numerous books on constructing and using language tests have been written by various authors. F. CRM, on the other hand, are more specific, achievement or diagnostic tests intended to be used for motivating students by measuring to what percent they have achieved mastery of the taught or learned the material. G. One of the authors clearly delineates the differences of these two types by focusing on the categories of “test characteristics” and “logistical dimensions.”